Rich Galen
This is the full text of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; the first of the Bill of Rights. Note the first clause, of the First Amendment:

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."

I wanted to get the specific language of what we generally refer to as the "Freedom of Religion" on the table, because it appears that we may be on the brink of the worst sectarian violence since the end of the Third Crusade, over 800 years ago.

The flash point appears to be between Christianity (33 percent of the world's population) and Islam (about 21 percent) which rank 1 and 2 among the number of adherents worldwide; 2.1 billion and 1.5 billion respectively.

Judaism, which predates them both, has only about 14 million adherents, and is potentially the match that lights the fire. But, there's plenty of fuel on both sides.

At the time of the formulation of the Bill of Rights, state-sponsored religion was the normal order of things throughout much of the world - certainly in monarchial Europe.

The Queen Elizabeth still carries, as part of her official title, "Defender of the Faith."

James Madison, according to the Cornell University Law School, first proposed this as the preferred language to the U.S. House in June, 1789:

"The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretense, infringed."

The House and Senate debated the specifics of the proposal and arrived at the current language in a Conference Committee in September of that same year.

Those were the days when compromises were not only sought, but were actually achievable.

As with other parts of the Bill of Rights, no right is absolute. The Second Amendment does not confer the right to own an atomic weapon, nor will declaring your fealty to the Fourth Amendment …

"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated…"

… allow you to board a commercial airliner without going through a TSA checkpoint.

Rich Galen

Rich Galen has been a press secretary to Dan Quayle and Newt Gingrich. Rich Galen currently works as a journalist and writes at