"Democracy ... arises out of the notion that those who are equal in any respect are equal in all respects," said Aristotle.
But if the Philosopher disliked the form of government that arose out of the fallacy of human equality, the Founding Fathers detested it.
"A democracy is nothing more than mob rule," said Thomas Jefferson, "where 51 percent of the people may take away the rights of the other 49." James Madison agreed, "Democracy is the most vile form of government." Their Federalist rivals concurred.
"Democracy," said John Adams, "never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts and murders itself. There is never a democracy that did not commit suicide."
"You people, sir, is a great beast," Alexander Hamilton is said to have remarked. If he did not, it was not far from his view.
Said John Winthrop, the Pilgrim father whose vision of a "city on a hall" so inspired Ronald Reagan, "A democracy is ... accounted the meanest and worst form of government."
But did not the fathers create modernity's first democracy?
No. They created "a republic, if you can keep it," as Ben Franklin said, when asked in Philadelphia what kind of government they had given us. A constitutional republic, to protect and defend God-given rights that antedated the establishment of that government.
We used to know that. Growing up, we daily pledged allegiance "to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands," not some democracy. As Walter Williams writes, Julia Ward Howe did not write the "Battle Hymn of the Democracy."
Today, we are taught to worship what our fathers abhorred to such an extent that politicians and ideologues believe America was put on Earth to advance a worldwide revolution to ensure that all nations are democratic.
Only then, said George W. Bush, can America be secure.
The National Endowment for Democracy was established for this quintessentially neoconservative end and meddles endlessly in the internal affairs of nations in a fashion Americans would never tolerate.
The democratists are now celebrating the revolutions across the Islamic world in the same spirit, if in less exalted language, as William Wordsworth celebrated the French Revolution, "Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive/But to be young was very heaven!"
After 1789 ushered in Robespierre and Saint-Just, the Terror, the dictatorship and the Napoleonic wars, enthusiasm cooled. But with the Lenin-Trotsky revolution of 1917, Mao's revolution of 1949, and Castro's revolution of 1959, the exhilaration returned, only to see the bright hopes dashed again in blood and terror.