Last Aug. 1, Sen. Joe Biden introduced S. 3433 to prohibit funding for a "security commitment to, or security arrangement with" Iraq that has not been approved by Congress. Biden was indignant that "Iraq's leaders plan to submit the agreement to their parliament -- but our president does not." Iraq's parliament has debated and ratified the agreement called "On the Withdrawal of United States Forces from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporary Presence in Iraq."
It stipulates U.S. duties "while conducting military operations" as part of "temporary assistance" to the Iraqi government when acting against "al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups, outlaw groups, and remnants of the former regime." And: "In the event of any external or internal threat or aggression against Iraq that would violate its sovereignty, political independence, or territorial integrity, waters, airspace, its democratic system or its elected institutions, and upon request by the government of Iraq, the parties shall immediately initiate strategic deliberations and, as may be mutually agreed, the United States shall take appropriate measures, including diplomatic, economic, or military measures, or any other measure, to deter such a threat." Sen. James Webb, a Virginia Democrat who co-sponsored both the Clinton and Biden bills, said "any" agreement with Iraq should earn "the explicit consent of Congress."