This gives demographers a chance to see where the nation is growing and where it is not, and to get an idea of the destination of immigrants and of the flow of people into one set of states and out of another.
Nationally, the Census Bureau estimates that the United States has grown from 308 million people when the Census was conducted in April 2010 to almost 313 million in July 2012, a rate of 1.7 percent. If that continues through the decade, the nation's population will rise at a lower rate but by a larger number in this decade than it did in 2000-2010.
The fastest growth in the last two years has been in two small enclaves -- in the District of Columbia (5.1 percent), thanks to the federal government and gentrification, and in North Dakota (4 percent), thanks to the Bakken shale oil boom.
Neither is up to 700,000 people yet, though North Dakota, after nearly a century in the 600,000s, is almost there.
The next-fastest growth rate is in the giant state of Texas. Its population rose 3.6 percent, to 26 million. This single state accounts for 18 percent of total U.S. population growth.
Two other states grew more than 3 percent, Utah and Colorado, thanks to high birth rates and newcomers eager to live near ski areas. And Florida, where growth stagnated after the housing bust, grew at 2.7 percent.
The two biggest growth states of the last two decades, Nevada and Arizona, are growing again, but at a pace behind Washington state and at about the same rate of the South Atlantic states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
The two states that lost population in the last two years are economically beleaguered Rhode Island and Michigan. But Michigan seems to be rebounding, growing enough in the last year that its 2010-12 estimated population loss was only 275 people.
Immigration is sharply down from the levels of 1982-2007. International migration, as the Census Bureau calls it, was only 0.6 percent of 2010 population in the last two years. It topped the 1 percent level only in New Jersey, New York and Florida.
To judge from the statewide figures, immigrants have stopped heading in large numbers to the heartland and have mostly been going to a few metro areas -- New York, Boston, Washington, Miami and Orlando.
Immigration is only slightly above the national average now in California and Nevada and below it in Arizona, with its immigration enforcement laws. Net Mexican immigration has halted. California is likely getting more Asians than Hispanics.
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