Editor's note: this post was coauthored by Robert Sinche
Neel Kashkari, the Republican candidate for governor of California, just recounted in the Wall Street Journal his week on the streets of Fresno posing as a homeless man looking for work. At the end of his op-ed, Kashkari lamented that he didn't need a higher minimum wage, paid sick leave, or a health-care plan. What he needed was a job.
And Kashkari made the important point that all those government benefits, especially extended unemployment benefits, are workdisincentives that may actually block job creation.
To be sure, there are signs that employment in the country is rising more rapidly these days. The February to July period was the first six-month stretch of consistent employment gains above 200,000 since 1997. And that came without any new programs from the federal government to "create jobs." Even more surprising, those gains overlapped a quarter in which GDP actually contracted.
So what drove the increase? University of Chicago professor Casey Mulligan put his finger on it: "Major subsidies and regulations intended to help the poor and unemployed . . . reduce incentives for people to work and for businesses to hire." And guess what happened when federal emergency job assistance ended? Job increases were the best in 17 years.
Economists tend to focus primarily on the demand for labor in analyzing employment trends, giving short shrift to the supply of labor. Indeed, given the harsh winter weather and first-quarter drop in real GDP, it's hard to believe that the demand for labor increased significantly in February and March. But is there anything about the supply of labor that could explain the improvement in employment?
Well, there is a very good reason to believe that extending unemployment benefits to a maximum of 99 weeks in recent years held back the labor supply. Rather than taking a job, extended unemployment benefits made it easier for potential workers to lengthen their job searches, hold out for higher-wage positions, or just choose not to work.
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