But might there be other reasons to explain the earnings gap between whites and minorities and between men and women? Yes, according to a provocative new book by economists June O'Neill and Dave O'Neill. "The Declining Importance of Race and Gender in the Labor Market" makes a persuasive argument that factors other than discrimination are to blame.
The O'Neills don't downplay the role of race and sex discrimination in the past. For Southern blacks in particular, the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 had an immediate and salutary effect. The wages of blacks in the South rose significantly in the aftermath. But elsewhere, the wage gap had been narrowing at a fairly rapid rate for 20 years. And anti-discrimination law had little demonstrable effect on the wages of women, though their earnings, too, had been steadily rising.
Blacks, especially black males, saw their earnings go up dramatically in the aftermath of World War II. Indeed, the 1940s was the decade in which the earnings of black men rose fastest -- exceeding the improvement experienced after employment discrimination was outlawed. Much of this rise was attributable to the movement of blacks out of the Deep South, where they were barred from certain jobs and were paid less even when they performed the same jobs as whites. But educational advancement was also a major factor in how blacks began to close the gap with whites.
The differences that persist today, according to the data the O'Neills present, are largely the result of divergent work-related skills between the groups. Most differences in hourly earnings disappear when black and white men with similar years of schooling, work experience and regional residence are compared.
The O'Neills use a rich source of data from the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to measure these factors, as well as scores from the Armed Forces Qualification Test. In 2008, when schooling, work experience, scores on the AFQT, age, region, hours worked and type of employer were accounted for, black men ages 35 to 43 earned 100 percent of the wages of similar white males. Hispanic males in the same category earned 97 percent of what non-Hispanic white males earned, and those between the ages of 43 and 51 earned 100 percent when these factors, along with the ability to speak English, were taken into account.
Linda Chavez is chairman of the Center for Equal Opportunity and author of Betrayal: How Union Bosses Shake Down Their Members and Corrupt American Politics .
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