The Palestinian request for full membership in the U.N. Cultural Agency goes to a vote on Monday.
Frustrated by stalled peace talks and the slow pace of their bid for recognition at the United Nations, the Palestinians are seeking other, potentially faster avenues to get the world to consider their territories a nation.
Paris-based UNESCO, the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is seen as a test case for that strategy.
The Palestinians will need to win over two-thirds of UNESCO's 193 members on Monday to get full membership.
The United States, which has said it will use its Security Council veto to derail the Palestinians bid at the U.N. in New York, has warned that its funding to UNESCO could be cut if the bid passes there.