Hundreds of anti-government protesters marched through the capital of Swaziland demanding democracy.
Some demonstrators on Monday burned cloth printed with the image of King Mswati III.
Schools and businesses remained open in a slow start to a "week of action" that called for nationwide strikes against sub-Saharan Africa's last absolute monarchy.
The government failed in efforts to have a court declare the strike illegal.
Protesters chanted against freezes of government salaries and cuts to student allowances.
Swaziland is in a financial crisis fueled by corruption and declining customs revenue that has led to widespread shortages of medication.
South Africa last month agreed to give Swaziland a 2.4 billion rand ($354 million) loan contingent on reform.