Italy recalled its ambassador to Brazil on Friday after the South American country's top court barred the extradition of an Italian fugitive convicted of four murders in the 1970s.
Cesare Battisti was released from a Brazilian prison on Thursday following the court ruling, sparking outrage in Italy and vows to pursue him in the International Court of Justice.
Foreign Minister Franco Frattini recalled Ambassador Gherardo La Francesca to Rome for consultations to discuss Italy's legal options.
Anger swept across Italy: major newspapers plastered their front pages Friday with pictures of Battisti, a former member of a militant Italian leftist group, as he left prison.
President Giorgio Napolitano said he "deplored" the decision and backed government actions aimed at pushing Brazil to honor its agreements with Italy. Premier Silvio Berlusconi said the court's decision "wounds our sense of justice and also those who have suffered in those cases."
A group representing victims of terror urged Italy to refuse to participate in the 2014 soccer World Cup in Brazil, while others called for a boycott of Brazilian products.
Brazil's Supreme Court on Wednesday night upheld a December decision by former President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to grant asylum to the Italian, who claims he is innocent of the murders. Battisti escaped from an Italian prison in 1981 while awaiting trial on four counts of murder, crimes allegedly committed when he was a member of the Armed Proletarians for Communism.
He was convicted in absentia for the murders of a prison guard, a police officer, a butcher and a jeweler _ sentences that were upheld by Italy's highest court in 1991.
Like numerous other leftists wanted for their roles in a tumultuous period of bombings and assassinations in Italy, Battisti took refuge in France in the 1990s and lived there for more than a decade, making a career writing police thrillers.
He fled France after Paris signed an extradition order in 2004 that would have sent him back to Italy, and ended up in Brazil.
The Italian government has repeatedly called for Battisti to be sent home so he can pay for his crimes, and warned that failure to do so would create tension between the two countries.
Battisti's lawyer, Luis Roberto Barroso, said Brazil was morally obligated to turn down Italy's request, noting this country granted amnesty to those charged with political crimes during its military regime that ruled from 1964 to 1985.
Over the years, Battisti has restated his claim of innocence, recently in a book called "My Escape," ("Ma Cavale") published in France in 2006.
"I am guilty, as I have often said, of having participated in an armed group with a subversive aim and of having carried weapons. But I never shot anyone," he wrote.