The prestigious Nobel Prizes are awarded annually on Dec. 10 in twin ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo.
Here is a look at this year's winners and their work:
_ Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine: Robert Edwards of Britain won the Nobel Prize in medicine for developing in vitro fertilization, a breakthrough that has helped millions of infertile couples have children but has also ignited an enduring controversy with religious groups.
_ Nobel Prize in physics: Russian-born Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for experiments with graphene, the thinnest and strongest material known to mankind.
_ Nobel Prize in chemistry: American Richard Heck and Japanese researchers Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki for finding new ways to bond carbon atoms together, methods now widely used to make medicines and in agriculture and electronics.
_ Nobel Prize in literature: Peruvian Mario Vargas Llosa, one of the most acclaimed writers in the Spanish-speaking world and a man of letters who also braved the violence and political divisions of his homeland to run for president.
_ Nobel Peace Prize: Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China. The Norwegian Nobel Committee said it has long believed that there is a close connection between human rights and peace.
_ The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences: Americans Peter Diamond and Dale Mortensen and Christopher Pissarides, a British and Cypriot citizen, for analysis of how the job market is affected by regulation and economic policy.
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