Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton has released a letter from her doctor that declared her to be in "excellent physical condition and fit to serve as president of the United States." She is the first candidate for president in 2016 to release detailed information about her personal health. A closer look:
Clinton is a "healthy 67-year-old female whose current medical conditions include hypothyroidism and seasonal pollen allergies," wrote Dr. Lisa Bardack, an internist who practices near Clinton's suburban New York home.
Hypothyroidism is a very common condition, and Bardack said other notable events in her medical history include deep vein thrombosis — or a blood clot, usually in the leg — in 1998 and 2009, a broken elbow in 2009 and a concussion in 2012.
Bardack concludes that Clinton "participates in a healthy lifestyle" and her most recent exam found "no evidence of additional medical issues or cardiovascular disease. Her cancer screenings are all negative." The doctor noted that Clinton's father lived into his eighties and her mother, into her nineties.
At her most recent exam in March, Clinton's blood pressure was 100 over 65. Her total cholesterol was 195; her LDL or "bad" cholesterol was 118, and her HDL or "good" cholesterol was 64 — all within healthy levels and not signaling the need for any medications.
Due to her family history, she had full cardiac testing, including an ultrasound exam of arteries in her neck, and all was well.
"There's no red flags there," said Dr. Mark Creager, director of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock heart and vascular center in Lebanon, New Hampshire, and president of the American Heart Association.
In terms of heart problems, Creager said, "she is at low risk for anybody, particularly for somebody in her age group."
Bardack said that Clinton got a stomach virus while traveling in 2012, "became dehydrated, fainted and sustained a concussion."
During the course of her treatment, doctors found a blood clot in a vein in the space between the brain and the skull behind her right ear. Clinton spent a few days in New York-Presbyterian Hospital for treatment and took a month-long absence from her role as secretary of state.
Bardack said testing the following year showed "complete resolution" of the concussion's effects, including double vision, which Clinton wore glasses with specialized lenses to address.
Clinton's current medications include Armour Thyroid, a thyroid hormone replacement, and antihistamines, vitamin B12 and Coumadin. The latter is a blood thinner that is used to prevent new blood clots from forming. "Her Coumadin dose is monitored regularly and she has experienced no side-effects from her medications," Bardack wrote. Clinton has no known drug allergies.
Clinton gets routine mammograms and breast ultrasounds, as well colonoscopies and gynecological exams. Her doctor said she exercises regularly — practicing yoga, swimming, walking, and weight training — and eats a diet rich in lean proteins, vegetables and fruits. She does not smoke and drinks alcohol "occasionally," Bardack wrote.