World stocks edged up Thursday, with traders heading into the long New Year's weekend in upbeat mood following a nine-month bull run that has seen many markets advance over 50 percent.
In Europe, the FTSE 100 index of leading British shares closed up 15.02 points, or 0.3 percent, at 5,412.88. That meant it closed out the year 22 percent higher but the decade down 22 percent.
Meanwhile, France's CAC-40 ended its shortened session less than a point higher at 3,936.33, finishing the year up around 23 percent but the decade 35 percent lower.
Germany's DAX was closed after ending 2009 on Wednesday on a fairly downbeat note _ 0.9 percent lower at 5,957.43. The DAX ended the year around 24 percent higher but the decade down 14 percent.
Wall Street is also expected to finish the year solidly _ Dow futures were up 15 points, or 0.1 percent, at 10,505 while the broader Standard & Poor's 500 futures rose 2.5 points, or 0.2 percent, to 1,124.60. Both U.S. indexes are set to finish the year over 20 percent higher too.
The impressive gains in Europe and the U.S. have been dwarfed by many markets in Asia, including China's Shanghai index and Hong Kong's Hang Seng, which rose 0.5 percent and 1.8 percent Thursday to finish the year at 3,277.14 and 21,872.50 respectively.
Over the year as a whole, the Shanghai index advanced 80 percent while the Hang Seng rose more than 50 percent, indicative many observers say of the continued solid economic growth recorded in China despite the recessions elsewhere.
Big annual gains were visible elsewhere in Asia, including on Japan's Nikkei 225 stock average, which ended the year Wednesday 19 percent higher at 10,546.44.
Stocks around the world have rallied hard since March's lows _ the Dow and the S&P 500 for example have surged more than 60 percent since then _ as investors grew more optimistic about the global economic recovery after central banks and governments pushed through extraordinary policy measures to mitigate the deepest recession since World War II.
A year ago, doom and gloom dominated sentiment in the markets as the financial crisis brought a number of banks to their knees, most notably Lehman Brothers, and stoked talk of a 1930s style depression. The global recession was harsh and unemployment did spike up sharply but the downturn did not prove to be as severe as many observers thought just a year ago.
"A pretty good year then compared to what many of us thought it might be," said Howard Wheeldon, senior strategist at BGC Partners.
Much of the optimism that began to appear in March appears to have been merited as most of the world's leading economies have returned to growth, albeit at fairly subdued levels.
The concern for stock market investors for 2010 is whether the rally has gone as far as it can in light of the likely economic conditions. With governments set to rein in their deficit spending and the central banks poised to start raising interest rates and withdrawing their big liquidity injections, many investors worry that the economic recovery will come to a grinding halt.
Fluctuations have been seen across all markets over the year.
For example, after an early year retreat, the price of a barrel of oil has doubled over 2009. By early afternoon London time, benchmark crude for February deliver was down 2 cents at $79.26.
In currency markets there have also been big fluctuations over the year, but many of the exchange rates are ending the year more or less where they started. The prevailing trend during the year was related to risk appetite _ when investors were extremely downbeat as at the start of the year, the dollar was in demand given its widely viewed status as a safe haven currency, but when optimism returned they looked for potential rewards elsewhere.
By early afternoon London time, the dollar was down 0.1 percent at 92.38 yen. Over the year, the dollar has traded in a fairly wide range between a 14-year low below 85 yen and above 100 yen.
Meanwhile, the euro was up 0.5 percent at $1.4404. It too has fluctuated in a fairly wide range over the year too, from below $1.25 to above $1.50.
In 2010, the more traditional interest rate factors are expected to play a bigger role in the currency markets. As 2009 ends, the dollar has enjoyed a year-end rally as investors believe the U.S. Federal Reserve will start raising interest rates from their current record lows sooner than many of its peers, meaning that a dollar will yield more.
Concerns about the level of borrowing in a number of euro zone countries, particularly Greece and Ireland, have also weighed on the euro recently, while renewed deflationary concerns in Japan have weighed on the yen.