In September 1813, Andrew Jackson fought with Thomas and Jesse Benton in Nashville, Tenn., in a battle featuring a whip, pistols and knives. Supposed slights had roused the prickly sense of honor of these men. No one would remember the circumstances today if the melee hadn't nearly cost the country the man who would become the hero of the Battle of New Orleans.
The days when an Andrew Jackson would exchange insults with an adversary in the buildup to a duel are forever gone. But senseless violence over questions of honor is still with us. Except that the fighters are less formal than they were in Jackson's day, and they become mere mortuary statistics rather than fodder for historians.
A report in The New York Times identifies a rise in urban violent crime attributable to "petty disputes that hardly seem the stuff of fist-fights, much less gunfire or stabbings." In Milwaukee, murders rose from 88 in 2004 to 122 last year, with 45 of them prompted by arguments, "by far the largest category of killings, as gang and drug murders declined." In Houston, homicides jumped by 24 percent in 2005, and "disputes were by far the largest category." In Philadelphia, there were 380 murders last year, the most since 1995, and 208 were disputes.
The Times reports that murder suspects explain their crimes as a response to being "disrespected" or subjected to "mean mugging" — literally being looked at the wrong way. According to the Times, "A man killed a neighbor whose 10-year-old son had mistakenly used his soap dish."
Culture is enduring, but needn't be a death trap. Two factors can suppress the worst effects of this cultural tendency. The first is fathers. Unsurprisingly, a researcher in Milwaukee found that young murderers are often sons of teenage mothers. Without a father, boys will tend to have fragile egos and no impulse control. Throw in a blighted community and easy access to guns, and mayhem results.
The second is good government. Urban expert Fred Siegel says that many cities are "like a pressure cooker — if you don't manage it right, it will blow up." In New York City, where Mayor Michael Bloomberg has preserved the intense policing practices of Rudy Giuliani, violent crime has continued to decline. The rise in murders is taking place in poorly governed urban areas like Milwaukee, St. Louis and Prince George's County, Md., outside of Washington, D.C.
Cities beset by broken families, rage-killings and corrupt, ineffectual governance suffer a mini-Katrina every day. Yet where are the uncompromising calls for the restoration of the black family and a new wave of vigorous, reformist urban government? Asked on "Fox News Sunday" what his solutions are to the problems of black America, the Rev. Lowery emphasized 30-year-old bromides. "Let's have more [government] programs," he suggested lamely.
The opposite of honor — a perverse version of which is driving the increase in murders — is shame. We should feel more of it when surveying our cities.