Your friend Mr. Wise makes conflicting arguments and misrepresents history in his article (and subsequently in your references) which weakens the point. He correctly states that Congress is responsible for spending, but blames Bush (and republicans) for the first trillion dollar deficit. First, if you count the "surplus", that came about when republicans gained control of Congress in 1994 (for the first time in 40 years). Then he says republicans took control both Congress & the White house and held it for 8 years. In 2001 the Senate was split 50-50 until Jim Jeffords jumped parties and gave Democrats control of the Senate from June 2001 until Jan of 2003. Republicans then lost both the House & Senate in the 2006 election, so 2007 & 2008 were a Democrat Congress, so of the 8 years of the Bush administration, republicans controlled both houses from 2003 to 2007 (and 5 months of 2001). While the first trillion dollar deficit was in a budget year that started under Bush, it was with a Democrat Congress, and included a $900 billion stimulus bill passed by his successor. While spending grew outrageously during the Bush years, to lay all of the blame for that on the republican party is disingenuous, and to say both parties are at fault, while true, does not show the differences of scale between the two.