Here is the CBO study I was referencing.
Clearly, the problem is that Congress is not smart enough to deal with this issue other that with a broad brush. It only knows how to implement "one size fits all" solutions. For years, less educated federal employees get better raises and fairer treatment than the most educated federal workers. Then the freeze come and they lump in the capped out most educated people in the government --- the ones who can do things to actually help the government save money and costs -- and what is Congress' solution? Lump everyone together and punish the top people.