What is really outrageous is that you don't even have to live in California to be obligated to pay California taxes. If Mickelson moves he won't escape it completely if he wins in Palm Springs or Pebble Beach. California keeps track of those things and collects the taxes on money that was earned there.
They even track player on pro sports teams. Doesn't matter if your paycheck was written in Minneapolis -- if you played in California a few times during the season they will collect tax on a portion of your earnings.