First, all conservatives are not religious conservatives. Second, the "basic math" in question is the concepts of math, not physics. In other words, how the economy works -- you can't spend more than you make, and if you do, you need to pay the loan off.
Now, to your points:
1. The speed of light is affected by gravity. If the universe was created all in one place and then spread out, time would be different at the point where it was created (more gravity = slower "time")
2. The boat had a large window across the top level all around. Only land animals were included and speciation since that time has been rapid. Related species (lion and tiger, for instance) that can mate would have needed two of the species from which they came.