No, but States can threaten to prosecute wayward Senators for breach of their oath of office. If they vote for something unconstitutional, that's actionable. Failure to do their job may also be actionable, as misfeasance.
Just because these Senators are elected by the People, doesn't mean there is no State control.
And if enough governors put their heads together, they can force a Constitutional Amendment repealing the 17th, and returning senatorial selection to the States.