What about the rules for not allowing one tradesman to do another job when required. Say a pipe breaks and no pipefitter is there to repair it. But an ironworker or mechanic can do the job in an emergency. Work rules prohibit others to do the work. Time is lost, a whole line can be shut down with multiple workers being paid, water (which costs money) is lost, the company loses money. This money could be the profit that turns into a loss, causing the company to go into bankruptcy. Despite your protestations, these union guys always pad jobs, do less work and charge higher rates. No, unions ALWAYS cause extra costs that cause companies to lose money.