The Founders had studied historical attempts to establish democracy. They knew pure democracy would end in despotism if factions were left unchecked. Hence, horizontal checks and balances, vertical checks and balances, bill of rights, defined limits on government, among other things. The U.S.A. was established from its founding as a representative, democratic, federal, republic not a pure democracy. All other world governments said the new American government would fail because size alone would prevent it from being governed well. Yet even with several attempts and some successes to tear down the Founder's checks and balances, the U.S.A. has proven to be the greatest and most successful of all countries, in all the world, in all ages.