Carter says "In an economy, the economic effects from a transfer program always sum to zero". But if transfer payments move cash from under mattresses into commerce, they do increase economic activity. Whether a specific transfer program is fair or effective in getting frozen capital into circulation is surely debatable. I'd have no problem with arguments about how Food Stamps, Medicare, or Social Security effect economic activity. But the blanket statement that no transfer program can have a positive effect on the economy is clearly erroneous.