In this photo taken Aug. 17, 2012, one of the few remaining miners walks out of a once lucrative cassiterite mining shaft which is now filing up with water, at Nyabibwe mine, in eastern

 

              In this photo taken Aug. 17, 2012, one of the few remaining miners walks out of a once lucrative cassiterite mining shaft which is now filing up with water, at Nyabibwe mine, in eastern
In this photo taken Aug. 17, 2012, one of the few remaining miners walks out of a once lucrative cassiterite mining shaft which is now filing up with water, at Nyabibwe mine, in eastern Congo. Gold is now the primary source of income for armed groups in eastern Congo, and is ending up in jewelry stores across the world, according to a report published Thursday, Oct. 25, 2012, by the Enough Project. Following American legislation requiring companies to track the origin of the minerals they use, armed groups have been unable to profit from the exploitation of tin (made primarily from cassiterite), tungsten, and tantalum, and have turned instead to gold, which is easier to smuggle across borders. Gold miners, like cassiterite miners, work in extreme conditions, with crude equipment such as pick-axes and shovels. (AP Photo/Marc Hofer)