In this photo taken Aug. 16, 2012, a woman selling mining supplies waits at her stall in the town of Nyabibwe, eastern Congo, adjacent to once lucrative mines for cassiterite, the major

 

              In this photo taken Aug. 16, 2012, a woman selling mining supplies waits at her stall in the town of Nyabibwe, eastern Congo, adjacent to once lucrative mines for cassiterite, the major
In this photo taken Aug. 16, 2012, a woman selling mining supplies waits at her stall in the town of Nyabibwe, eastern Congo, adjacent to once lucrative mines for cassiterite, the major ore of tin. Once able to sell up to ten pairs of rubber boots a day, traders now only sell one pair, as campaigns and regulations against conflict minerals have made mining for resources like cassiterite much less profitable. Gold is now the primary source of income for armed groups in eastern Congo, and is ending up in jewelry stores across the world, according to a report published Thursday, Oct. 25, 2012, by the Enough Project. Following American legislation requiring companies to track the origin of the minerals they use, armed groups have been unable to profit from the exploitation of tin, tungsten, and tantalum, and have turned instead to gold, which is easier to smuggle across borders. Gold miners, like cassiterite miners, work in extreme conditions, with crude equipment such as pick-axes and shovels. (AP Photo/Marc Hofer)