In this photo taken Aug. 16, 2012, a Congolese miner sifts through ground rocks to separate out the cassiterite, in the town of Nyabibwe, eastern Congo, a once bustling outpost fueled b

 

              In this photo taken Aug. 16, 2012, a Congolese miner sifts through ground rocks to separate out the cassiterite, in the town of Nyabibwe, eastern Congo, a once bustling outpost fueled b
In this photo taken Aug. 16, 2012, a Congolese miner sifts through ground rocks to separate out the cassiterite, in the town of Nyabibwe, eastern Congo, a once bustling outpost fueled by artisanal cassiterite mining. Gold is now the primary source of income for armed groups in eastern Congo, and is ending up in jewelry stores across the world, according to a report published Thursday, Oct. 25, 2012, by the Enough Project. Following American legislation requiring companies to track the origin of the minerals they use, armed groups have been unable to profit from the exploitation of tin (produced primarily from cassiterite), tungsten, and tantalum, and have turned instead to gold, which is easier to smuggle across borders. Gold miners, like cassiterite miners, work in extreme conditions, with crude equipment such as pick-axes and shovels. (AP Photo/Marc Hofer)