Fear that Europe's debt crisis is infecting Germany, the strongest economy in the region, sent stocks reeling Wednesday.
The Dow Jones industrial average dropped 236 points, leaving it down 4.6 percent over the past three days. The Standard & Poor's 500 index fell for the sixth day in a row, its worst losing streak since August.
Traders were spooked by the poor results at an auction of German debt, which drew too few bids to sell all of the 10-year notes being offered. Germany has Europe's strongest economy, and traders have bought its debt as a safe place to store value during turbulent times.
The weak buying suggests that Europe's crisis might be infecting strong nations that are crucial to keeping the euro currency afloat. Germany bears much of the burden of bailing out weaker neighbors such as Greece and Portugal.
Borrowing costs for Italy and Spain rose from levels that already were considered dangerously high. Europe lacks the resources to bail out those countries, which have its third- and fourth-biggest economies.
The Dow fell 236.17 points, or 2.1 percent, to close at 11,257.55. It has slumped this week as Congress neared a deadlock on cutting the budget deficit and as Europe's debt woes appeared to worsen. The Dow has now given back more than half of its big October rally. It jumped 9.5 percent last month, the biggest gain since 2002.
The Standard & Poor's 500 index fell 26.25, or 2.2 percent, to 1,161.79. All 10 industry groups fell sharply, led by energy companies, materials makers and banks. The index is headed for its sixth straight decline, the longest losing streak since August.
The Nasdaq fell 61.20, or 2.4 percent, to 2,460.08.
The dollar rose sharply against the euro as investors moved money into assets considered to be relatively safe. The euro fell near $1.33, from $1.35 late Tuesday. The yield on the 10-year Treasury note fell to 1.89 percent from 1.94 percent late Tuesday, signaling higher demand for Treasurys.
Fears about Europe also dragged U.S. bank stocks lower. Investors were unnerved by the Federal Reserve's announcement late Tuesday of a fresh round of stress tests of the biggest banks, said Peter Tchir, who runs the hedge fund TF Market Advisors.
The Fed said 31 banks will be tested to see how they would withstand a recession that would push unemployment above 13 percent by early 2013. The jobless rate now stands at about 9 percent.
The announcement undermined weeks of market-boosting talk by Fed officials, Tchir said. The stress tests, apparently related to fears about European exposure, exposed a darker view of the market held by some central bank officials, he said.
"They went ahead and put weakness into the market for the first time" in months, Tchir said. "No one was that afraid, and now all of a sudden, they're saying `Our own Fed is worried.' That really spooked people."
Bank stocks fell broadly. Bank of America Corp. lost 4.3 percent to close at $5.14; Citigroup Inc. fell 3.9 percent to $23.51 and Morgan Stanley fell 3.6 percent to $13.03.
Asian markets fell earlier after a survey showed that manufacturing appears to be slowing in China. A day earlier, the U.S. government had lowered its estimate of third-quarter economic growth.
Trading was light ahead of the Thanksgiving holiday. U.S. markets will be closed on Thursday and will have shortened hours on Friday. Volume on the New York Stock Exchange was 3.8 billion shares, below the average of 4.7 billion over the past 100 days.
In corporate news, Deere & Co. rose 3.9 percent to $74.72 after the company reported net income growth of 46 percent. Deere credited strong sales of farm equipment.
Groupon Inc. plunged 15.5 percent to $17.96, falling below its initial price of $20 for the first time. The online deals company went public less than three weeks ago.
Companies that make raw materials were hurt by signs of slower growth in China and worries that Europe might fall into recession. United States Steel Corp. plunged 7.6 percent to $22.41. Aluminum maker Alcoa Inc. declined 4.1 percent to $8.88.
The U.S. government released a mixed batch of economic reports before the market opened. Concerns about developments overseas appeared to overshadow a handful of hopeful signals.
Slightly more people applied for unemployment benefits last week, a sign that layoffs continue. Consumer spending grew by the least in four months, but incomes rose a bit more than expected. Orders for long-lasting manufactured products fell for a second month and business investment dropped off.
Daniel Wagner can be reached at http://www.twitter.com/wagnerreports.
Katrina vanden Heuvel: "MS, WI, TX, ND, AR, Have Become States of Misogyny of Bigotry" | Greg Hengler
Report: Boehner Won't Bring Immigration Bill to the Floor Without Majority of Republicans On Board | Guy Benson