Ken Blackwell

The Becket Fund’s legal brief on this point is a historical tour de force—tracing the idea that government is limited because it is “under God” from the writings of Bracton and Coke in the 13th and 17th Centuries, to Blackstone and the Founders in the 18th, to Lincoln’s Gettysburg address, and to the present day. Men are “endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights,” said the Declaration of Independence; “[t]he fate of unborn Millions will now depend, under God, on the Courage and Conduct of this army,” said General Washington of his troops; and the Civil War was fought “that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom,” said Lincoln’s Gettysburg address. Thus, as the Becket Fund said, “From this history, it is incontestable that since even before the Declaration of Independence, it has been an important part of our national ethos that we have inalienable rights that the State cannot take away, because the source of those inalienable rights is an authority higher than the State.” To strike down “under God” would not only be historically wrongheaded, but would also rule anathema the very political philosophy of limited government on which this country was founded.

Remarkably, in an opinion joined by the liberal Judge D.W. Nelson, the Ninth Circuit adopted the Becket Fund’s argument: “The phrase “under God” is a recognition of our Founder’s political philosophy that a power greater than the government gives the people their inalienable rights. Thus, the Pledge is an endorsement of our form of government, not of religion or any particular sect.” The Court continued: “The Framers referred to the source of the people’s rights as the ‘Creator,’ the ‘Supreme Judge,’ and ‘Nature’s God.’ [citing The Declaration of Independence] The name given to this unknowable, varied source was not crucial, but the source was a necessary prerequisite to the concept of limited government that formed the basis of our nation’s founding.”

In response, Judge Reinhardt, one of the Court’s most liberal members, suffered what can only be called a judicial hissy fit. In a rambling, 133-page dissent, he called the majority’s limited government argument “pure poppycock,” first taking an irrelevant swipe at Sarah Palin, then derisively linking the majority’s position to the Tea Party: “The majority’s explanation of the phrase bears a suspicious resemblance to the platform of the Tea Party movement, which proclaims itself to be a ‘group of like-minded people who desire our God given Individual Freedoms which were written out by the Founding Fathers.’” In Reinhardt’s view, it was “absurd” to think that “under God” was anything other than an attempt to “indoctrinate[e] public schoolchildren with a religious belief.”

Reinhardt’s temper tantrum aside, it is remarkable to reflect on what has happened here. The most liberal court in the United States just struck a blow in favor of limited government, acknowledging that this nation is founded on the idea that our rights come from somewhere higher than the state—from the “Creator,” the “Supreme Judge,” and “Nature’s God.” Contrary to what oversensitive atheists would have us believe, it is not unconstitutional for the government to refer to this political philosophy, even when using its traditionally theistic terms. Thus, this ruling safeguards not only the Pledge, but many other traditional references to God in the public square.

Champions of limited government everywhere should be celebrating this ruling (and the Becket Fund) for enshrining their most important philosophical point in the nation’s most liberal court.

Ken Blackwell

Ken Blackwell, a contributing editor at, is a senior fellow at the Family Research Council and the American Civil Rights Union and is on the board of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty. He is the co-author of the bestseller The Blueprint: Obama’s Plan to Subvert the Constitution and Build an Imperial Presidency, on sale in bookstores everywhere..
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