"Throughout the fourteenth century, the Mongol leadership, especially the Borijin clan, deteriorated. Each generation proved less competent and knowledgeable, as well as more isolated and corrupt. ... A noxious fog of ignorance and greed engulfed the family, and the khans stumbled blindly in search of physical pleasures and mindless amusements until they were killed by some corrupt officials and replaced by another."
They no longer lived the nomadic life, but they were not Chinese either.
"They had all the confidence and bravado of the original Mongols of Genghis Khan, but they had none of the skills, strengths, or stamina. They seemed to have abandoned the virtue of Mongol life and ignored the virtue of Chinese civilization."
When the Mongols left China and returned to the steppe, they ate up their homeland, "destroyed their pasture and burned the wood."
Manduhai and Dayan Khan, whom she rescued when he was a boy and eventually married, changed the Mongol Empire's path of decline and deterioration. Manduhai claimed to rule the Mongol Empire, but "she had enemies on every side, and she needed to choose her first battle carefully. She had to confront each enemy, but she had to confront each in its own due time. Manduhai needed to manage the flow of conflicts by deciding when and where to fight and not allowing others to force her into a war for which she was not prepared or stood little chance of winning."
Manduhai used all of her skills and abilities, and reunited a large part of the Mongol Empire. She maintained the traditional way of nomadic Mongol life, raised Dayan as a nomadic Mongol. The Chinese contained her by expanding the Great Wall of China.
Why was this story of Gengis Khan, the creation of this Mongol Empire, and its resurgence so interesting?
Because it tells the story of a civilization being created, then saved by individuals. Created by Genghis Khan, then saved by Manduhai. Manduhai the Wise, as she was known, embraced and followed the values and beliefs of the empire's founder, Genghis Kahn. These values and beliefs created his strength, and helped Manduhai restore the empire.
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