Beginning in 1996, under President Clinton, federal law said that no funds can be used for any research involving the destruction of a human embryo. And last week Frist noted that four years ago he said Congress should ``ban embryo creation for research'' and should provide funding for stem cell research only from embryos ``that would otherwise be discarded'' -- his position now.
Americans' support of expanded research is a manifestation of national character. This nation was born at the sunny noontime of, and to a considerable extent because of, the Enlightenment. The essence of that historical epoch was, and an American characteristic is, vaulting confidence in the ability to apply science -- including what Alexander Hamilton in Federalist 9 called the improved ``science of politics'' -- for mankind's material and moral betterment.
Some ``realists'' -- the sort who would have explained the Sermon on the Mount as a focus-group-driven exercise in political positioning -- suggest that Bush adopted his policy to pay for support he had received in 2000 from right-to-life conservatives. It does not seem to occur to such ``realists'' that Bush has the support of such conservatives because he believes in the policies he adopts. The realists' faux realism is the perverse reasoning that fuels government regulation of political campaigns: The fact that Group X supports Candidate Y explains -- causes -- Candidate Y's support for policies pleasing to Group X.
Such realists say Frist has now ``broken with'' the president because, having taken a number of stances pleasing to social conservatives who are disproportionately important in awarding Republican presidential nominations, it is time for him to tack toward ``the center.'' As though it is otherwise inexplicable why a physician would be receptive to a potential expansion of medicine's healing arsenal.
The minor disagreement between Bush and Frist refutes the crackpot realism of those who cannot fathom the fact that people in public life often do what they do because they think it is right. Both Bush and Frist have thought seriously about this subject and come to mildly divergent conclusions. But neither conclusion crosses the scarlet line of supporting the creation of embryos to be mere sources of cells. And neither conclusion is the result of the sort of slapdash thinking that exaggerates the differences between them and explains those differences in terms of banal political calculations.