When Congress returns from its August recess, the issue of
corporate "inversions" will likely be close to the top of its agenda.
Inversions result when U.S. corporations reincorporate in a foreign country
in order to reduce their taxes. In recent years, several U.S. companies have
taken this action.
The issue of inversions has gotten a lot of attention because
people, including many members of Congress, are under the false impression
that jobs and factories are moving abroad. In fact, nothing real is
affected. The only thing that is moving is legal residence for tax
purposes -- a purely paper transaction.
This goes on inside the United States all the time. According to
the Federation of Tax Administrators, the top corporate tax rate is 12
percent in the state of Iowa. However, neighboring Kansas has a rate of just
4 percent. No doubt, over the years, there are any number Iowa companies
that have reincorporated in Kansas in order to save 8 percent per year in
Of course, individuals do the same thing. For example, FTA
reports that North Dakota has the highest income tax rate at 12 percent. Yet
South Dakota has no income tax at all. This may explain why the former's
population has been falling, while the latter's has been rising.
The point is that individuals and corporations move from one
state to another and from one town to another every day, partially based on
differences in the taxes they pay in one jurisdiction versus the other. This
is not a matter of congressional interest, nor should it be. Competition
helps ensure that citizens get the mix of services they want for the taxes
they are willing to pay.
However, it is much more difficult for individuals to move to
foreign countries to take advantage of lower tax rates there. In part, this
is because the IRS continues to tax U.S. citizens living in a foreign
country as if they still lived here. It does not matter that they receive no
services from the U.S. government, nor that they earn all of their income in
a foreign country. The IRS still wants its pound of flesh.
So, too, with corporations. A company that incorporates in
Canada pays taxes only on its operations in Canada. If it has a U.S.
subsidiary, it pays U.S. taxes on its profits here, but none to Canada.
However, the exact same U.S. company with an identical Canadian subsidiary
will pay Canadian taxes, plus U.S. taxes on its Canadian operations as well.
Thus, the U.S. company will pay more total taxes even if the United States
and Canada have the same tax rates.
It is this anomaly in U.S. tax law that encourages inversions.
In effect, a U.S.-based company establishes a foreign subsidiary, which then
buys the U.S. company. In the process, it becomes a foreign-based company
with a U.S. subsidiary, instead of the other way around. Nothing whatsoever
has changed except the legal place of residence for tax purposes.
While nothing more than a legal maneuver, it should be noted
that it is not a costless one. In the process, shareholders of the original
company must, in effect, sell their shares and realize capital gains, which
may trigger a tax liability. They then receive new shares in the foreign
corporation exactly equal to their old shares. Therefore, although ownership
does not change, the inversion process imposes taxes on many shareholders.
The tax cost of inversions is probably the major reason why more
companies don't do it. The fact that some still do -- which requires a
majority vote by shareholders -- tells us that the tax savings must be
considerable. And indeed they are. A recent paper by economists Mihir Desai
and James Hines found a significant increase in stock prices for companies
announcing inversions. Investors recognize that after-tax earnings will be
higher and bid up stock prices, thereby compensating shareholders for the
taxes they incur in the process.
Most attention on inversions has focused on so-called tax havens
such as Bermuda, which has no corporate tax at all. However, many major
countries have corporate tax rates well below the 40 percent rate here
(including state taxes). These include such countries not noted for being
low taxed as Finland (29 percent), Norway and Sweden (28 percent each).
Ireland has a corporate tax rate of 16 percent, and Chile's rate is just 15
Instead of writing new laws to prevent inversions, Congress
would be better advised to cut corporate tax rates. The inversion phenomenon
should be viewed as a warning that U.S. rates are too high. Additional laws
may possibly prevent inversions by existing companies, but in the future,
newly established corporations will find places like Ireland much more
hospitable countries in which to incorporate in the first place.